Making DAO’s independent on each other

I have these two classes (Getter/Setter/Constructor omitted):

public class Company {
    private String name;
    private String adress;
    private List<Employee> employees;
    private Uuid id;

public class Employee {
    private String name;
    private int age;
    private Uuid id;

The two entities and their relationship are modeled in a relational database using the tables COMPANY, EMPLOYEE and EMPLOYMENT.

Now I want to write the DAO classes to manage persistance of the two entities and their relationship. The easy way would be making a DAO for each one and have the CompanyDao use the EmployeeDao internally. But according to some Stackoverflow answers I’ve read, this is a design smell and should be refactored into service methods which use the DAOs without them having to depend on each other.

This is the way I would implement this service method:

public class DBService {
    public DBService(CompanyDao companyDao, EmployeeDao employeeDao,
                     EmploymentDao employmentDao) { ... }

    public Company findCompany(Uuid companyId) {
        Company company = companyDao.find(companyId);
        List<Uuid> employeeIds = employmentDao.findEmployeeIds(company.getId());
        for(Uuid employeeId : employeeIds) {

Is this a good way to do this? Or should the EmployeeDao have a findByCompany(Uuid companyId) method?

Info: I already asked a smiliar question on Stackoverflow, but the only answers I got was “Use an ORM tool”. I know that something like Hibernate would manage all of the persistance for me, but I would like to know how to do this by hand.


The easy way would be making a DAO for each one and have
the CompanyDao use the EmployeeDao internally.

Due to no link to StackOverflow has been shared, I just want to mention why is code smell.

In short:

  • it would introduce undesirable coupling. Potentially one of the DAOs would end up subordinated to the other.

  • It has all the recipes for a circular dependency. See also Circular references.

Regarding to the code (the exmaple of DBService)

Is this a good way to do this?

So far, the code is at the doors of the well known Repository pattern (despite the actual name) which is broadly adopted by the community. You will find many references to the pattern looking for DDD.

The Repository pattern introduced in Eric Evans’ DDD, has nothing to do with the implementation details, so the implementation will vary according to the specific requirements and needs.

What doesn’t vary is the concept. The purpose.

So, based only in the info you provide, I would say that you are doing fairly good.


I suggest a high symmetry. So if you have an entity you should have a DAO. The DAO should serve only one entity. (principle of least surprise)

You also should keep dependencies short so a DAO is only responsible for its entity and the resolution of direct neighbours. (Law of demeter)

In an architecture of mine I use other DAOs within DAOSs. But the behavior I use from other DAOs is nothing about “loading” or “persisting”. I only use map-methods to create a new representation for each entity for the higher layer.

By the way: This has nothing to do with hibernate an ORM tools. They only decrease mapping effort and support loading, persisting and caching strategies. But all of this should be encapsulated in the DAO layer either so higher layers can abstract from those technical details.

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai. Các trường bắt buộc được đánh dấu *